The phases of digestion
Absorption in the stomach
Absorption of substances in the stomach is minimal, but small amounts of various mineral salts, water, alcohol, and most medications are sucked through its cell walls. This is why the stomach can be defined as a digestive rather than an absorbing organ.
Small intestine - device, digestion, and absorption
The small intestine consists of three main parts:
- duodenum (the first part after the stomach)
- empty bowel
The third part ends with an Ileocecal valve that blocks the entrance to the colon.
The path from the entrance into the small intestine to the Ileocecal valve is very long - the pulp progresses by about 1 cm per minute, and the whole distance travels between 4 and 8 hours.
After entering the duodenum, the food is subjected to the action of enzymes contained in juices secreted by the bile and the pancreas.
The juices, in turn, consist of bicarbonate, lipase, amylase and proteolytic enzymes.
The small intestine has a heavily folded inner surface covered with lint cells, making it a superior absorption body thanks to its large suction area. At the beginning of the small intestine is the absorption of simple sugars and fat-soluble vitamins, downgraded non-digested disaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol, after which water-soluble vitamins and bile salts are sucked in.
Thus, while the slurry moves through the small intestine, proteins, fats, and carbohydrates are finally digested, and most nutrients are absorbed.
The next phase of the food is to get into the colon.
Like the thinner, the colon also consists of three main parts:
- a dumbbell (cecum)
- a colon (colon)
- Right bowel (rectum)
The content that reaches the colon is from indigestible ingredients in the hummus, water, and some digestive juices.
The main compounds entering the bloodstream through the walls of the colon are water and the ions dissolved therein. Remains of waste material that are discharged from the body.
These are the main functions of the colon - one is to suck the water, and the other - to expel the stools.
As you can guess, the colon contains the most numerous and different kind of bacteria in the digestive tract.
We can distinguish two types:
Degrading carbohydrates that our body has failed to digest (for example, fiber, oligosaccharides, and sugars). During the fermentation process, short-chain fatty acids are formed which have positive properties;
Degrading proteins such as enzymes, dead cells, collagen and elastin from our food.
It is important to maintain a healthy balance of the bacteria in the intestine in order to:
- prevent harmful bacteria from taking over
- eliminate carcinogens
- strengthens the immune system
- prevents allergy and various bowel diseases
The digestive system extracts the main nutrients from foods and beverages as they enter it, assimilates the necessary macronutrients, and serves as a barrier against potentially harmful microorganisms.
The digestive tract starts from the mouth and ends at the anus. This time comes from food for a period between 18-72 hours.
Duration depends on the individual's nutritional and motor habits and is reduced if a high-fiber diet is consumed (fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, whole grains, legumes, etc.) and if a person's daily routine activity.
The digestive system is a long muscular canal where fluids (acids in the stomach and alkaline fluids in the intestine) and enzymes are secreted, and in combination with rhythmic contractions, our food is shredded into smaller pieces and moved along the chain until complex molecules degrade to simpler.
A healthy digestive tract is necessary for optimal digestion, absorption of the substances and delivery to the cells that need them.
A properly functioning gastrointestinal tract is extremely important to the overall health and well-being of a person because it covers 75% of the immune system of the body, but unfortunately, most people often expect to feel some malaise to take care of their "second brain".